413 fraud reports in the beef supply chain were identified between 1997 and 2017.
Counterfeiting accounted for 42.9% of identified fraud.
Primary processing is the most vulnerable area, accounting for 35.8% of reports.
The Horsemeat Scandal of 2013 highlighted vulnerabilities within the European beef supply chain. The report resulted in mass product recalls across Europe, a downturn in beef sales, and subsequent economic losses for genuine actors in the supply chain. The aim of this review was to improve understanding of beef supply chain vulnerability via the use of trend analysis, to enable the formulation of strategies that may help in the prevention and detection of fraud in beef products, and facilitate greater protection for consumers and industry in the future.